From learning to dougie to summoning rain, different types of dancing evoke a variety of emotions and are used for many distinctive purposes. For Collembola (commonly referred to as springtails), our featured bugs this week — a good dance might just find you a girlfriend.

 

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Two members of the Order Collembola “dancing.” The male is smaller and orange, while the larger red individual is female. The photographer Andy Murray (Flickr) said that this particular dance was successful!

 

The “Cha-Cha-Cha”dance of one species of springtail (not to be confused with our “Cha-Cha Slide”) is a dance that involves a series of head-butts (seen above) with a grand finale of two twirls. While it may seem aggressive to the human eye, this dance, when completed satisfactorily, woos a female Bourletiella hortensis into accepting a male’s sperm packet, or spermatophore. However, if she is less than impressed, the female declines his offer and eats the spermatophore instead! These sperm sacs must be nutritious, because males of the Orchesella cincta species are often seen eating the sperm sacs of other males. Scientists propose that by eating competing males’ sperm, Orchesella cinta increase the chances of their sperm packets being chosen by neighboring females instead.

 

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This male springtail has just deposited his sperm packet (spermatophore). Photo by Gilles San Martin (Flickr). Edited by Kallin Lang, cropping and adding a label.

 

As an alternative to dancing, some male springtails use the “love garden” technique, planting a series of spermatophores in an area and then coaxing a female springtail to walk through and pick up sperm along the way. Other males are much more strategic with their placement of sperm. Some use the “ring of fire” method, which involves building a fence around the female, practically forcing her to walk over a sperm packet if she wants to leave. However, some males in this Order are much more careless, haphazardly depositing their spermatophores and hoping that a female will find it. This reproductive method is known as “drop and pray.” Lastly, others use the “tug of war” technique. After laying a spermatophore, a male grabs onto a female with his antennae and forcefully brings her over to it. In species that don’t directly transfer sperm, males have to get a little creative.

 

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The top photo is from our lab, and shows a species of Collembola that we have affectionately nicknamed “Punk-rock Collembola.” Photo by Kit Straley. The bottom photo, by photographer Andy Murray (Flickr) shows a similar species in much finer detail. Check out those spikes!

 

In addition to their different mating rituals, springtails also exhibit other interesting behaviors. Some members of the Order can jump anywhere from 15 to 20 times their own body length when threatened, using specialized legs that are normally kept tucked against their bodies. This is equivalent to a 5’5” tall person jumping over 8 stories high. This amazing feat earned them their nickname “springtails.” To land safely after such a leap, it was once thought that Collembola had a specialized organ which allowed them stick to whatever they landed on. In fact, this is how the Order got its scientific name. The greek roots kolla, meaning glue, and embolon, meaning peg were combined into Collembola. Unfortunately, scientists made a mistake. This “glue-peg,” which is located just before the third set of legs, is actually used in transporting water in and out of the individual, not to stick to surfaces. Despite this, the name stuck and over 200 years later the bug is still known as Collembola.

 

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The picture above shows two of the defining characteristics of the Order: the glue-peg and the springtail. Collembola can be elongated like above or more spherical like below, but always have short antennae and eye patches made up of multiple eyes. Photo by the NY State IPM Program at Cornell University (Flickr). Edited by Kallin Lang to include labels.

 

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While from far away it may seem that springtails only have two eyes, when you zoom in like the photographer Andy Murray did here, you can clearly see that the “eye” is actually a cluster of multiple eyes (Flickr).

 

Considering how Collembola are so cool, why aren’t people talking about them? They are so tiny! Even at their largest size of 6mm, you could still fit three end to end on a penny and have room to spare. These bitty bugs can be found anywhere from within soil, leaf litter, and decaying wood to the surfaces of water or snow. While they much prefer to be the one chowing down on some decaying leaves, mold, or mildew, these tiny bugs often find themselves on someone else’s dinner plate. Other insects and arthropods such as spiders, mites, flies, and pseudoscorpions perceive them as tasty snacks rather than friendly neighbors. You would think with up to 8 single eyes on each side of their head they would keep a better lookout! Regardless, if they can see you coming with their multitude of eyes, you should definitely keep your two on the ground. You never know when you might run into a leaping Collembola.

 

By: Kallin Lang

 Feature photo by Andy Murray, Flickr.


 

Sources:
Carr, J. 2009. Class: Collembola-Springtails and allies. Iowa State University Department of Entomology, Aimes, IA. Available from: http://bugguide.net/node/view/258362
Hopkin, S. 1997. Biology of Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford University Press, Great Britain. pp 139-140.
Murray, A. 2012. Deuterosminthurus pallipes courtship ritual. [Internet] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andybadger/718320509
Murray. A. 2013. Calvatomina rufescens. [Internet] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andybadger/9573043357
Murray. A. 2013. Orchesella villosa. [Internet] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/andybadger/9631275944/
NY State IPM Program at Cornell University. 2012. Springtail. [Internet] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/99758165@N06/
San Martin, G. 2008. Sminthurus viridis (det F. janssens). [Internet] Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/sanmartin/2419124883/in/photolist-nprV8W-4FLDxH-bczv18
Shockley, F. 2011. It takes two to tango…or does it? The curious courtship of Collembola. Decoded Science [Internet]. Decoded Science. Available from: http://www.decodedscience.org/it-takes-two-to-tango-or-does-it-the-curious-courtship-of-collembola-springtails/3713
Van Duinen, J.J. 2016. Class Collembola Lubbock, 1870: Springtails general. [Internet] Available from: http://www.janvanduinen.nl/collembolaengels.html
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